This book originated out of a desire to provide students with an instrument which might lead them from knowledge of elementary classical and quantum physics to moderntheoreticaltechniques for the analysisof electrontransport in semiconductors. The book is basically a textbook for students of physics, material science, and electronics. Rather than a monograph on detailed advanced research in a speci?c area, it intends to introduce the reader to the fascinating ?eld of electron dynamics in semiconductors, a ?eld that, through its applications to electronics, greatly contributed to the transformationof all our lives in the second half of the twentieth century, and continues to provide surprises and new challenges. The ?eld is so extensive that it has been necessary to leave aside many subjects, while others could be dealt with only in terms of their basic principles. The book is divided into ?ve major parts. Part I moves from a survey of the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics to a brief review of basic semiconductor physics. Its purpose is to establish a common platform of language and symbols, and to make the entire treatment, as far as pos- ble, self-contained. Parts II and III, respectively, develop transport theory in bulk semiconductors in semiclassical and quantum frames. Part IV is devoted to semiconductor structures, including devices and mesoscopic coherent s- tems. Finally, Part V develops the basic theoretical tools of transport theory within the modern nonequilibrium Green-function formulation, starting from an introduction to second-quantization formalism.
Originally published in 1992, this book discusses a contemporary growth in environmental awareness, reflected in an increasing concern about the pollution caused by motor cars.The author considers the problem of congestion bringing traffic to a halt in the major cities and the increasingly controversial nature of contemporary transport planning. Professor Dimitriou provides a thorough and incisive contemporary analysis and suggests some appropriate solutions for the future.
When solving real-life engineering problems, linguistic information is often encountered that is frequently hard to quantify using "classical" mathematical techniques. This linguistic information represents subjective knowledge. Through the assumptions made by the analyst when forming the mathematical model, the linguistic information is often ignored. On the other hand, a wide range of traffic and transportation engineering parameters are characterized by uncertainty, subjectivity, imprecision, and ambiguity. Human operators, dispatchers, drivers, and passengers use this subjective knowledge or linguistic information on a daily basis when making decisions. Decisions about route choice, mode of transportation, most suitable departure time, or dispatching trucks are made by drivers, passengers, or dispatchers. In each case the decision maker is a human. The environment in which a human expert (human controller) makes decisions is most often complex, making it difficult to formulate a suitable mathematical model. Thus, the development of fuzzy logic systems seems justified in such situations. In certain situations we accept linguistic information much more easily than numerical information. In the same vein, we are perfectly capable of accepting approximate numerical values and making decisions based on them. In a great number of cases we use approximate numerical values exclusively. It should be emphasized that the subjective estimates of different traffic parameters differs from dispatcher to dispatcher, driver to driver, and passenger to passenger.
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